Health in Funetik Inglish iz Helth.

Welkum tw Helth izmz for selz, plants, animals and humans...

Species:H. sapiens

Homo sapiens

The Basic Needs Of Living Things

Every living organism on earth needs some basic things to survive.

The amount, way, form or kind of these needs vary from organism to organism...

There are five basic needs that all living things have. They are

Sunlight: This is probably the most important need for all living organisms, because it is the source of all energy. It also provides heat for plants and animals

Water: Water is the medium in which living cells and tissue work. Water is also a living environment for many plants and animals. 

[Living water iz water in a living cell.]

Air: Air is made up of several gases, but the two most important gases are Oxygen and Carbon dioxide. Without oxygen, animals will die, and without carbon dioxide, plants cannot survive.

Food (nutrients): Living things need energy for function. Energy is needed to grow, reproduce, move, and to work. Think of what will happen if you stayed for three days without food…

A Habitat with the Right Temperature: Too cold or too hot? Every living organism needs the ideal temperature to survive either on land or in water.

Food Requirements and Essential Nutrients
Essential nutrients are those that cannot be created by an animal’s metabolism and need to be obtained from the diet.

Key Points:
  • The animal diet needs to be well-balanced in order to ensure that all necessary vitamins and minerals are being obtained.
  • Vitamins are important for maintaining bodily health, making bones strong, and seeing in the dark.
  • Water-soluble vitamins are not stored by the body and need to be consumed more regularly than fat-soluble vitamins, which build up within body tissues.
  • Essential fatty acids need to be consumed through the diet and are important building blocks of cell membranes.
  • Nine of the 20 amino acids cannot be synthesized by the body and need to be obtained from the diet.

An chordate takes in food through the mouth. The chordate has a mouth with a tongue. Some have teeth and some do not. It has a digestive system with stomach, intestines. Chordates eat plants and animals.

Nutrient acquisition strategies of mammalian cells

Mammalian cells are surrounded by diverse nutrients, such as glucose, amino acids, various macromolecules and micronutrients, which they can import through transmembrane transporters and endolysosomal pathways. By using different nutrient sources, cells gain metabolic flexibility to survive periods of starvation. Quiescent cells take up sufficient nutrients to sustain homeostasis.

See also:

Nutrition (also called nourishment or aliment) is the provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life. Many common health problems can be prevented or alleviated with a healthy diet.

The diet of an organism is what it eats, which is largely determined by the perceived palatability of foods. Dietitians are health professionals who specialize in human nutrition, meal planning, economics, and preparation.

They are trained to provide safe, evidence-based dietary advice and management to individuals (in health and disease), as well as to institutions. Clinical nutritionists are health professionals who focus more specifically on the role of nutrition in chronic disease, including possible prevention or remediation by addressing nutritional deficiencies before resorting to drugs. While government regulation of the use of this professional title is less universal than for "dietician", the field is supported by many high-level academic programs, up to and including the Doctoral level, and has its own voluntary certification board, professional associations, and peer-reviewed journals, e.g. the American Society for Nutrition and the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

A poor diet can have an injurious impact on health, causing deficiency diseases such as scurvy and kwashiorkor; health-threatening conditions like obesity and metabolic syndrome and such common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis.

Animal nutrition Overview
Nutritional science investigates the [[/wiki/Metabolism|metabolic]] and physiological responses of the body to diet. With advances in the fields of [[/wiki/Molecular_biology|molecular biology]], [[/wiki/Biochemistry|biochemistry]], [[/wiki/Nutritional_immunology|nutritional immunology]], [[/wiki/Molecular_medicine|molecular medicine]] and [[/wiki/Genetics|genetics]], the study of nutrition is increasingly concerned with metabolism and [[/wiki/Metabolic_pathway|metabolic pathways]]: the sequences of biochemical steps through which substances in living things change from one form to another.

[[/wiki/Carnivore|Carnivore]] and [[/wiki/Herbivore|herbivore]] diets are contrasting, with basic [[/wiki/Nitrogen|nitrogen]] and [[/wiki/Carbon|carbon]] proportions being at varying levels in particular foods. Carnivores consume more nitrogen than carbon while herbivores consume less nitrogen than carbon, when an equal quantity is measured.

The [[/wiki/Human_body|human body]] contains [[/wiki/Chemical_compounds|chemical compounds]], such as [[/wiki/Water|water]], [[/wiki/Carbohydrate|carbohydrates]] (sugar, starch, and [[/wiki/Fiber|fiber]]), [[/wiki/Amino_acids|amino acids]] (in [[/wiki/Proteins|proteins]]), [[/wiki/Fatty_acids|fatty acids]] (in [[/wiki/Lipids|lipids]]), and [[/wiki/Nucleic_acids|nucleic acids]] ([[/wiki/DNA|DNA]] and [[/wiki/RNA|RNA]]). 

These compounds in turn consist of [[/wiki/Chemical_element|elements]] such as [[/wiki/Carbon|carbon]], [[/wiki/Hydrogen|hydrogen]], [[/wiki/Oxygen|oxygen]], [[/wiki/Nitrogen|nitrogen]], [[/wiki/Phosphorus|phosphorus]], [[/wiki/Calcium|calcium]], [[/wiki/Iron|iron]], [[/wiki/Zinc|zinc]], [[/wiki/Magnesium|magnesium]], [[/wiki/Manganese|manganese]], and so on. 

All of these chemical compounds and elements occur in various forms and combinations (e.g. [[/wiki/Hormones|hormones]], [[/wiki/Vitamins|vitamins]], [[/wiki/Phospholipids|phospholipids]], [[/wiki/Hydroxyapatite|hydroxyapatite]]), both in the [[/wiki/Human_body|human body]] and in the plant and animal organisms that humans eat.

The human body consists of elements and compounds ingested, digested, absorbed, and circulated through the [[/wiki/Blood|bloodstream]] to feed the [[/wiki/Cell_(biology)|cells]] of the body. Except in the unborn fetus, the [[/wiki/Digestive_system|digestive system]] is the first system involved[vague]. In a typical adult, about seven liters of digestive juices enter the [[/wiki/Lumen_(anatomy)|lumen]] of the digestive tract. 

These digestive juices break [[/wiki/Chemical_bonds|chemical bonds]] in ingested molecules, and modify their [[/wiki/Protein_conformation|conformations]] and energy states. 

Though some molecules are absorbed into the bloodstream unchanged, digestive processes release them from the matrix of foods. 

Unabsorbed matter, along with some waste products of [[/wiki/Metabolism|metabolism]], is eliminated from the body in the [[/wiki/Feces|feces]].

Studies of nutritional status must take into account the state of the body before and after experiments, as well as the [[/wiki/Chemical|chemical]] composition of the whole diet and of all material [[/wiki/Excreted|excreted]] and eliminated from the body (in [[/wiki/Urine|urine]] and feces). 

Comparing the food to the waste can help determine the specific compounds and elements absorbed and metabolized in the body. 

The effects of nutrients may only be discernible over an extended period, during which all food and waste must be analyzed. 

The number of [[/wiki/Variable_(mathematics)|variables]] involved in such [[/wiki/Experiment|experiments]] is high, making nutritional studies time-consuming and expensive, which explains why the science of human nutrition is still slowly evolving.

In general, eating a wide variety of fresh, whole (unprocessed), foods has proven favorable for one's health compared to monotonous diets based on processed foods. 

In particular, the consumption of whole-plant foods slows digestion and allows better absorption, and a more favorable balance of essential nutrients per [[/wiki/Calorie|Calorie]], resulting in better management of cell growth, maintenance, and [[/wiki/Mitosis|mitosis]] (cell division), as well as better regulation of appetite and blood sugar. 

Regularly scheduled meals (every few hours) have also proven more wholesome than infrequent or haphazard ones, although a recent study has also linked more frequent meals with a higher risk of colon cancer in men.

Reference Daily Intake
The Reference Daily Intake or Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States (where it was developed, but has since been used in other places).

The RDI is used to determine the Daily Value (DV) of foods, which is printed on nutrition facts labels in the United States and Canada, which is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and Health Canada.

The RDI is based on the older Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) from 1968; newer RDAs have since been introduced in the Dietary Reference Intake system, but the RDI is still used for nutrition labeling.

Food labeling reference tables
For people four years or older, eating 2,000 calories per day, the DRVs are:

For vitamins and minerals, the RDIs are given in the following table, along with the more recent RDAs of the Dietary Reference Intakes (maximized over sex and age groups):[1[[|]]]

Dietary Reference Intake

The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine(IOM) of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences

The DRI system is used by both the United States and Canada and is intended for the general public and health professionals. Applications include:
  • Composition of diets for schools, prisons, hospitals or nursing homes
  • Industries developing new food stuffs
  • Healthcare policy makers and public health officials
The DRI was introduced in 1997 in order to broaden the existing guidelines known as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). The DRI values are not currently used in nutrition labeling, where the older Reference Daily Intakes are still used.

Current recommendations

The current Dietary Reference Intake recommendation is composed of:
  • Estimated Average Requirements (EAR), expected to satisfy the needs of 50% of the people in that age group based on a review of the scientific literature.
  • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient by the Food and Nutrition Board to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. It is calculated based on the EAR and is usually approximately 20% higher than the EAR (See "Calculating the RDA", below).
  • Adequate Intake (AI), where no RDA has been established, but the amount established is somewhat less firmly believed to be adequate for everyone in the demographic group.
  • Tolerable upper intake levels (UL), to caution against excessive intake of nutrients (like vitamin A) that can be harmful in large amounts. This is the highest level of daily consumption that current data have shown to cause no side effects in humans when used indefinitely without medical supervision.

The RDA is used to determine the Recommended Daily Value (RDV) which is printed on food labels in the U.S. and Canada.

EARs, RDA/AIs and ULs for an average healthy 25-year old male are shown below. EARs shown as "NE" have not yet been established or not yet evaluated. ULs shown as "ND" could not be determined, and it is recommended that intake from these nutrients be from food only, to prevent adverse effects. Amounts and "ND" status for other age and gender groups, pregnant women, lactating women, and breastfeeding infants may be much different.[2[[|]]]
[[PASTING TABLES IS NOT SUPPORTED]]EAR: Estimated Average Requirements; RDA: Recommended Dietary Allowances; AI: Adequate Intake; UL: Tolerable upper intake levels.
RDA/AI is shown below for males and females aged 40–50 years.[2[[|]]]

Includes water from food, beverages, and drinking water.c Based on 0.8 g/kg of body weight

The equations used to calculate the RDA are as follows:

"If the standard deviation (SD) of the EAR is available and the requirement for the nutrient is symmetrically distributed, the RDA is set at two SDs above the EAR:

RDA = EAR + 2 SD(EAR).

If data about variability in requirements are insufficient to calculate an SD, a coefficient of variation (CV) for the EAR of 10 percent is assumed, unless available data indicate a greater variation in requirements. If 10 percent is assumed to be the CV, then twice that amount when added to the EAR is defined as equal to the RDA. The resulting equation for the RDA is then

RDA = 1.2 × EAR.

See also:
 * Diet and your nervous system (V8 Energy Original has all 5 nutrients mentioned in this article...)